Foodweb models provide a useful framework for compiling data on biomass, production, consumption and feeding relationships. They are particularly useful for identifying gaps and inconsistencies in the data, and for exploring plausible scenarios of change. We compiled data on the pelagic foodweb of the South Georgia shelf, which is one of the most intensively studied areas in the Southern Ocean. The data suggest that current average annual copepod production is three times that of Antarctic krill and that flying seabirds and fish are, respectively, responsible for 25% and 21% of local krill consumption. The most striking inconsistency was that estimated consumption of fish was 5 times their estimated production. We developed a static mass balance model of the foodweb representing one of many possible solutions to the inconsistencies in the data. The model included sufficient fish biomass to balance the original consumption estimate, and consequently fish became the main krill consumers. Nonetheless, only 74% of local krill production was consumed by predators, suggesting that there are additional mortality sources that we did not explicitly model. We developed further models to explore scenarios incorporating plausible climate-driven reductions in krill biomass. In scenarios with unchanged predator diets, an 80% reduction in krill biomass resulted in a 73% reduction in vertebrate biomass. However, when predators with diverse diets were able to switch to feeding on alternative zooplankton prey, total vertebrate biomass was maintained at current levels. Scenarios in which 80% of krill biomass was replaced with copepod biomass required 28% more primary production because the estimated consumption rate of copepods is higher than that of krill. The additional copepod biomass did not alter the consequences for vertebrates. These scenarios illustrate the wide range of potential consequences of a shift from a krill to a copepod dominated system in a warming climate. They suggest that both maintenance and dramatic reduction of vertebrate production are plausible outcomes, although the former requires major changes in predator diets.
LATEST STORIES MOST READ Ginebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup title Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Japeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for Ginebra “Of course Poy is one the best bigs in the country but we have to work on our chemistry because that’s important for a team,” said Alas.The Road Warriors’ lack of cohesiveness allowed Rain or Shine to let loose in the 50-50 balls establishing a 53-38 disparity in overall rebounds and a 20-7 edge under the offensive glass.Rain or Shine’s relentless rebounding allowed them to score 21 second chance points, 14 more than what NLEX mustered.“I think we lacked the effort because we were outrebounded, outhustled, and at the same time we have to improve on our on-court chemistry,” said Alas.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil Philippine Army to acquire MANPADS, self-propelled howitzers In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ Kevin Alas back from injury. PBA IMAGESMANILA, Philippines—Kevin Alas’ painstaking recovery process from his injury left him off the basketball floor for almost a year, and now that the furlough is over the NLEX guard feels he’s starting life anew.“I was so excited last night that I couldn’t sleep at all and I think I was a rookie again,” said Alas in his first game back in the PBA Philippine Cup Friday at Cuneta Astrodome.ADVERTISEMENT Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Boogie Cousins overcomes nerves in 1st game with Warriors Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college His return, however, didn’t end in a fairy tale finish after NLEX dropped to Rain or Shine, 96-87.This was Alas’ first competitive game since tearing the anterior cruciate ligament in his right knee in March of 2018 during the fifth game of NLEX’ semfinals series against Magnolia in the Philippine Cup.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGolden State Warriors sign Lee to multiyear contract, bring back ChrissSPORTSCoronation night?SPORTSThirdy Ravena gets offers from Asia, Australian ball clubs“It was also disappointing because I wanted to win the game but Rain or Shine was the better team,” said Alas who had 12 points and four assists in his return.Apart from his personal return, the Road Warriors are also in the first stages of acclimating star big man Poy Erram into the system after they acquired the 6-foot-7 center from Blackwater in the offseason. Ginebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup title Tom Brady most dominant player in AFC championship history View comments
24 January 2014 South Africa’s massive infrastructure development programme will open up opportunities for the country’s black industrial class to grow, Public Enterprises Minister Malusi Gigaba said at a business breakfast hosted by the Black Management Forum (BMF) in Bloemfontein on Thursday. Gigaba, focusing on the development of the Durban-Free State-Gauteng Logistics and Industrial Corridor – also known as Strategic Integrated Project II (SIP2) – said the project, on which R205-billion would be invested over the next five years, would improve access to Durban’s export and import facilities. Industry in the Free State province would also be integrated into the corridor, cargo nodes would be built in Harrismith, Cato Ridge, Tambo Springs and the Dube Trade Port, and existing cargo nodes like City Deep and Pyramid would be further upgraded. At the same time, rail capacity between Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal would be expanded and rolling stock increased to meet forecast growth in demand from 67-million tonnes per annum to 167-million tonnes by 2037. “This presents an opportunity for black business to explore both downstream and upstream initiatives, high value-added goods and growth sectors in the infrastructure value chain like cement plants, stone mining and others.” Gigaba said the government was committed to supporting black industrialists that were ready, able and willing to put in the hard work needed to create sustainable, job creating and skill developing inclusive wealth. “No economy creates a new class of industrialists without hard work. We expect the same from black business, so that they become true entrepreneurs and not mere middlemen.” As South Africa celebrated 20 years of democracy, it was necessary, Gigaba said, to ensure that those who were previously excluded from the economy now had a better life. South Africa had always lagged behind compared to its emerging economy peers due to inadequate economic infrastructure to facilitate trade, and the government-led infrastructure programme was intended to transform the economy and stimulate growth, he said. The International Monetary Fund has predicted that South Africa’s economy will grow by 2.8% this year and 3.3% next year, driven by exports. “While this signals positive projections, it is not suitable for South Africa to build its economy on an export-led strategy [alone],” Gigaba said. “We must anchor our economy also on domestic consumption. This infrastructure investment will contribute to that objective.” Source: SAnews.gov.za
Start Free Trial Already a member? Log in UPDATED on January 8, 2018Most homes have several exhaust appliances. These typically include a bathroom fan (40-200 cfm), a clothes dryer (100-225 cfm), and perhaps a power-vented water heater (50 cfm), a wood stove (30-50 cfm), or a central vacuum cleaning system (100-200 cfm). But the most powerful exhaust appliance in most homes is the kitchen range-hood fan (100-1,200 cfm).Every time an exhaust fan removes air from your house, an equal volume of air must enter. The air that enters cracks in a home’s envelope to replace air that is exhausted is called “makeup air.” Two trends affecting makeup air are causing increasing problems for homeowners: homes are getting tighter, and range-hood fans are getting more powerful.So where does a powerful range-hood fan get its makeup air? If the house doesn’t have enough random air leaks around windows, doors, and mudsills, the makeup air is often pulled backwards through water-heater flues or down wood-burning chimneys — a phenomenon called backdrafting. Since the flue gases of some combustion appliances can include carbon monoxide, backdrafting is dangerous. In some cases, it can be life-threatening.Most residential Q&A columns get regular questions from homeowners asking how to solve backdrafting problems or how to provide makeup air for exhaust fans. Yet range hood manufacturers are notorious for failing to provide installers with any guidance on makeup air. Several years ago, I looked into the problem and reported what I found in an article published in the August 2006 issue of Energy Design Update.The genesis of my research was a homeowner query posted on Breaktime, the Web forum maintained by Fine Homebuilding magazine. Cheryl Morris described problems with her expensive new 1,200-cfm GE Monogram range hood. “It will pull a negative in the house,” she wrote. Reached by phone, Morris told me,… Sign up for a free trial and get instant access to this article as well as GBA’s complete library of premium articles and construction details. This article is only available to GBA Prime Members
The Australian Teams have arrived on mass in Christchurch, New Zealand. The largest touring party that Touch Football Australia has ever sent overseas will commence playing in the All Nations tournament tomorrow, 26 October. The teams attended the official Australian night on Tuesday, with all players being presented their Australian playing uniform by TFA Director, Mr Peter Del Monte. Another part of the evening saw the announcement of the two players to carry the Australian flag at the opening ceremony of the All Nations tournament. Jody English from the Women’s 30’s side and David Cheung from the Men’s 40’s team were selected as the representatives and were obviously proud to have the honour of carrying their Nations flag. Both players have been fantastic role models and ambassadors for the sport since they commenced representing Touch Football Australia, and have been a part of many international and World Cup campaigns. Congratulations Jody and David, we know you will lead your teams well and good luck to all All Nations players as your tournament begins tomorrow.
Chelsea manager Sarri: Hazard false-nine integral for defenceby Freddie Taylor10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveEden Hazard brings more defensive solidity to Chelsea when playing in the false-nine position, manager Maurizio Sarri has revealed.The Belgian scored both goals as Chelsea defeated Watford 2-1 in a valuable away victory on Boxing Day. But it was Hazard’s importance in defence that lead Sarri to playing him as a striker.Sarri told Sky Sports of Hazard’s position: “In this moment we need this solution because we need to be more solid defensively and with this system we can score and become more solid in the defensive phase.”Maybe in the last match, we played better in the first half than we did tonight, but today the application was very good.”I think [Hazard] played very well, not only for his two goals, but he was good with his teammates and in open spaces. I like him in every position he is a great player.” About the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say
A disabled lawyer has launched a ground-breaking legal case against the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) over his claim that it deliberately discriminated against him in rejecting his claim for disability benefits.Daniel Donaldson (pictured), founder of the Scottish social enterprise law firm Legal Spark, believes DWP has chosen to discriminate against him and other people with mental health conditions in the way it has dealt with their personal independence payment (PIP) claims.He says DWP disregarded the evidence relating to his mental health – and focused instead on other impairments – and made no attempt to seek medical evidence about his mental health from his GP, while his assessor lied about his medication.He believes, like many other disabled campaigners, that the system uses people without the right training and qualifications to assess PIP claims.He said: “The DWP refused to accept anything from me, and thereafter I had to appeal and wait. “In the meantime, debt, frustration and stress ensued. My health deteriorated – they actually made it worse.”He believes that people with unseen impairments, such as mental health conditions, have been “left playing second fiddle” in the PIP claims process.Donaldson points to the recent legal case in which the high court found that regulations that came into force last year were “blatantly discriminatory” because they meant that people who were unable to plan or undertake a journey due to overwhelming psychological distress would receive fewer qualifying points when assessed for PIP.DWP later decided not to appeal against that court decision.Donaldson said he hoped that other PIP claimants in Scotland, and across England and Wales, will follow his lead and take legal action if he is successful, which he believes “would make DWP think twice before playing a discrimination game”.He had been receiving PIP from 2013 until it was removed following a reassessment in November 2016.It was only reinstated last October, after he took his appeal to the social security tribunal.It was, he said, a “year of hell”, in which he fell into debt and struggled to maintain his independence.His case will be heard by Glasgow Sheriff Court, and he is seeking nearly £5,000 in damages, to cover bank charges, the removal of his bus pass, and £4,000 in compensation for the discrimination.Donaldson is also taking legal action under the Equality Act against the Scottish government, because it failed to take on responsibility for PIP from DWP when it had the powers to do so from 2016.Although the Scottish parliament last week approved legislation to set up a new social security system for Scotland – which will include the delivery of PIP and other benefits – Donaldson says it should have done this sooner.He said: “The Scottish government must take urgent action to stop the discrimination in the administration of PIP.“To ignore the problem and place the blame elsewhere is totally unacceptable.”Donaldson also argues that the Scottish government should have altered the eligibility for free bus passes to ensure that claimants could continue to use them while appealing against losing their PIP.A DWP spokeswoman said: “We cannot comment on this individual case as the legal action is ongoing.“We’re absolutely committed to ensuring that disabled people and people with health conditions get the right support they need, and we want every person to feel they are treated fairly, with respect and dignity.“Everyone has the right to appeal a decision if they are unhappy and additional information can be provided to support a claim.”A Scottish government spokesman said: “We have repeatedly called on the UK government to halt the roll-out of PIP in Scotland, most recently following the report of the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which called for a review of PIP due to the damage it is causing people.“When the Scottish government begin delivery of disability benefits, we have categorically ruled out requiring anyone to undergo a disability benefit assessment by the private sector.“We will also listen to the independent disability and carers benefits expert advisory group and our experience panels to ensure our system is fairer.“We want to remove unnecessary barriers to those entitled to make a claim and reduce the amount of face-to-face assessments carried out.”He had not commented on the bus pass issue by noon today (Thursday).Donaldson said the UK government had created “a hostile and degrading environment for disabled people” by “using public policy to strip people of their statutory entitlement to benefits”, including PIP and employment and support allowance (ESA).He said: “The ESA payments are a lifeline for disabled people who cannot work or cannot find suitable work.“PIP is there to support disabled people who require financial support to maintain their independence. They are statutory entitlements.”He said the only way the government can avoid paying “this essential support is by denying all the evidence that is put before them”.He added: “This is why the majority of cases are overturned on appeal at the social security tribunal.“There is no place for disability discrimination in the provision of public services, and it is important that both the UK and Scottish governments are reminded of that.”