Citation: Comet Hale-Bopp finally goes dormant as it passes Neptune (2011, May 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-comet-hale-bopp-dormant-neptune.html The great cometary show The comet Hale-Bopp, likely the most studied and/or observed comet in human history, was visible to casual observers for nearly 18 months as it swooped past, coming as close as 1.315 AU (1AU = one Sun-Earth distance) to us, before once again heading off into the far reaches of our solar system. First seen by amateur astronomer’s Alan Hale, and Thomas Bopp, the comet drew international attention as it was the brightest that had been seen in the sky in several decades, and because it endured for so long in the night sky.In a paper published in arXiv, Gyula Szabó of Konkoly Observatory in Hungary, and his two colleagues Krisztián Sárneczky, an amateur astronomer from Hungary and László Kiss of the University of Sydney in Australia, note that after 15 years, Hale-Bopp appears to have finally moved far enough from the sun (30.7 AU) that it’s coma (envelope or cocoon that is formed by ice sublimating in space) has finally diminished to the point where it’s almost nonexistent. After reaching its perihelion (closest point to the sun) on April 1, 1997, the comet has ever since been rushing the other way with very little fanfare, though it was noted briefly in 2007, also by Szabó, that it still had a very visible coma at 25.7 AU.Szabó and his team in 2007 also took note of the temperature of the surface of Hale-Bopp at the time and found it to be 53.1 K (-220 Celsius or -364 Fahrenheit) and because the comet is now seen to be freezing to death, they believe that it can be inferred that comets like Hale-Bopp, seem to die at about 50-53 K.This marks the farthest distance that a comet has ever been studied from, and gives scientists new insights into how far a comet must travel from the sun before it goes dormant, something that might work to our advantage as scientists in the future try to discern the behavior of comets that might pose a threat to us by passing too close; though we won’t have to worry about Hale-Bopp any time soon, since it won’t be heading our way again for another 2500 years. © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — In a joint mission to find out how Hale-Bopp, the comet that inspired news all over the world back in 1996/97, when it was at its closest to Earth, has been doing since it headed away from us, astronomer’s from Hungary and Australia working together at the European observatory in Chile found that nearly fifteen years, later, Hale-Bopp, the messy, sometimes spectacular comet, has finally gone quiet. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: Frozen to death? — Detection of comet Hale-Bopp at 30.7 AU, Gy. M. Szabó, K. Sárneczky, L. L. Kiss, arXiv:1104.4351v1 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1104.4351AbstractComet Hale–Bopp (C/1995 O1) has been the single most significant comet encountered by modern astronomy, still having displayed significant activity at 25.7 AU solar distance in late 2007. It is a puzzling question when and where this activity will finally cease. Here we present new observations with the ESO 2.2m telescope at La Silla to check the activity of Hale–Bopp at 30.7 AU solar distance. On 2010-12-04, 26 CCD images were taken with 180 s exposure times for photometry and morphology. The comet was detected in R and had a total brightness of 23.3+-0.2 mag, referring to an absolute brightness of R(1,1,0)=8.3. The profile of the coma was star-like at a seeing of 1.9″, without any evidence of a coma or tail extending farther than 2.5″ (=55,000 km in projection) and exceeding 26.5 mag/arcs^2 surface brightness. The measured total brightness corresponds to a relative total reflecting surface, a_RC, of 485 km^2, nine times less than three years before. The calculated a_RC value would imply a nucleus with 60–65 km radius assuming 4% albedo. This size estimate is in significant contradiction with the previous results scattering around 35 km. Therefore we suggest that the comet may still be in a low-level activity, despite the lack of a prominent coma. Alternatively, if the nucleus is already dormant, the albedo should be as high as 13%, assuming a radius of 35 km. With this observation, Hale–Bopp has been the most distant comet ever observed, far beyond the orbit of Neptune. Comet Hale-Bopp’s sodium tail. Credit: European Hale-Bopp team.
(Phys.org) — Remember when a phone used to be a phone? Not a camera, restaurant finder, music player, social networking check-in, or mini game diversion? A new survey makes it official. Engaging in phone calls has fallen down into the Etcetera of features use category. According to a study of 2,000 smartphone users, the time spent talking on phone is just 12 minutes a day, out of the two hours a day spent using the phones. According to O2’s “All About You” report from the UK, just browsing the Internet is the most frequent activity on smartphones, accounting for 25 minutes a day. Checking and updating social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter consume 17 minutes against the frailer 12 minutes to talk in a phone call. Press release More information: Young, affluent snap up smartphones © 2012 Phys.Org Explore further Among the usage and time breakdowns featured in the report: Smartphone users browsing the Internet (25 minutes a day), social networking (17 minutes), listening to music (16 minutes), playing games (13 minutes), and e-mail (11 minutes). Other activities that the survey timed were reading books, watching videos, and taking pictures, all for a total of 128 minutes.The “All About You” report announced Friday from mobile provider O2, which is the commercial brand of Telefónica UK Limited, was commissioned by O2 to mark the launch of the Samsung Galaxy SIII.David Johnson, General Manager Devices for O2 in the UK, said, “Smartphones are now being used like a digital ‘Swiss Army Knife’ replacing possessions like watches, cameras, books and even laptops.” He said the phone now plays a far greater role in all aspects of daily life. More than half, 54 percent, are using their phones instead of alarm clocks; 46 percent have stopped wearing a watch in favor of the smart phone; 39% percent have switched from using a standalone camera to using the smartphone; and more than a quarter use their phone instead of a laptop.The findings conveniently prop the new Samsung Galaxy SIII, which is rich in “next generation” functions. The phone provides S Voice,’ described as an advanced natural language user interface, to listen and respond to the user’s words, and carries eye-tracking such that the screen remains bright if the user is looking at it.While the survey findings of how the smartphone is used may not surprise most people, there are a few points of interest in the study as to how much more far-reaching the Swizz Army Knife of mobile devices may become, notwithstanding the expected leveling off of smartphone sales. One in twenty smartphone users have switched to use their phone in place of a TV (six percent) or reading physical books (six percent). Citation: UK study: Calls place modest fifth in phone time use (2012, July 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-uk-modest.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Kohl or kajal is the basic thing required to highlight eyes. But how about giving it a personal touch? Here’s how to make kajal sitting at home.Take a lamp and fill it with oil or ghee. Keep aside a teaspoon of it.Make a wick with cotton, soak in ghee and place it in the lamp. Light the wick.Place blocks on either side of the lamp and ensure there is no breeze. Keep a silver plate upside down over the lamp, resting between the supports. Place the plate about half an inch above the lamp with the flame tip touching the plate.Let the lamp burn overnight to collect the soot on the inside of the plate.Remove the plate after the flame is extinguished. Scrape the thick coating of carbon, black powdery residue collected on the cover. Cool and add ghee drop by drop to make the soot smooth.Store in the refrigerator for two hours. You can store at room temperature thereafter. Since homemade kajal is very dark so apply it overnight and wash face in the morning or after bath. The remaining kajal leaves a beautiful and natural tint on your eyes.
Sri Lanka’s main Muslim party, the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), Sunday joined the opposition to oppose Mahinda Rajapaksa’s bid to win a third term.SLMC leader Rauff Hakeem announced his resignation as justice minister in the Rajapaksa government, Xinhua reported. “I have sent my resignation to the president,” he told the media.The SLMC decision to back opposition candidate Maithripala Sirisena followed several rounds of discussions.Relations between the government and the Muslim community, which makes up about 10 percent of Sri Lanka’s 20.4 million population, have been tense due to hardline Buddhist groups.Hakeem accused these groups of inciting communal violence in the southern towns of Aluthgama and Beruwala that left two people dead. The SLMC is the second Muslim party to join the opposition after Industry and Commerce Minister Rishad Bathiudeen and his All Ceylon Makkal Congress (ACMC) crossed over last week.
Kolkata: In a tragic incident, four persons who were asleep, have been killed when a loaded dumper rammed into their house situated on the road side.The incident took place in Amrasota village of Asansol in West Burdwan district on early Wednesday morning. The victims were crushed to death after stone chips of the truck fell on them as the vehicle overturned immediately after hitting the house. According to the West Burdwan police, the victims have been identified as Rohit Kumar (19), Suraj Kumar (18), Satish Kumar (12) and Sishu Kumar (14). Rohit, Suresh and Satish were three brothers and Sishu was their cousin brother. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsTheir house is situated close to National Highway 60. According to the preliminary investigation, police suspect that the driver lost control over the vehicle while taking a turn and the truck eventually hit the house and overturned.According to police, the dumper was coming from Birbhum’s Panchami. As soon as the dumper hit the outside wall of the house, the stone chips fell on the victims who were asleep. Locals rushed to the spot immediately after the accident but failed to rescue the victims. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThey reported the matter to the local police, who brought a crane and removed the vehicle. The victims were later brought out from the debris of stone chips. All of them were declared brought dead after being taken to a nearby hospital.The driver of the dumper has been absconding since the incident took place. Following the incident, locals staged a demonstration on NH 60 resulting in huge traffic jam. They demanded that police must keep a vigil on vehicles that flout traffic norms. The demonstration was lifted following the intervention of the senior police officers.Another incident took place in Cooch Behar, where people died on Wednesday morning. They were killed when the car they were travelling in hit a road side tree. The incident took place in Pundibari area of Cooch Behar on Wednesday morning. The identity of the victims is yet to be confirmed.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday said the Armed Forces jawans, who had to give up their jobs prematurely, would be covered by One Rank, One Pension (OROP) benefits announced by the government on Saturday. Welcoming the government’s decision, the agitating ex-servicemen decided to call off their hunger strike but would continue their stir till all the “sticky” issues are resolved. Addressing a press conference at Jantar Mantar, Major General (Retd) Satbir Singh, leader of the association leading the agitation, said the protest will continue till four specific points raised by ex-servicemen were accepted by the government. Also Read – Man arrested for making hoax call at IGI airport“We thank Prime Minister Narendra Modi for fulfilling the promise of One Rank, One Pension. We thank the Defence Minister but there are four issues to be resolved including the period of equalisation of pension,” Singh said. The ex-servicemen said revision of pension after a gap of five years as announced by the government was not at all acceptable to them, besides appointment of a one-man judicial commission to examine various aspects of OROP. He then urged all those who were on hunger strike to withdraw it as the Prime Minister had clarified Also Read – Disqualified AAP MLA Kapil Mishra, women’s wing chief join BJPon the issue of premature retirement.Addressing a rally in Haryana while inaugurating a Metro line between Badarpur in Delhi and Faridabad in Haryana, Modi said, “Armed Forces personnel who retired prematurely will be entitled to OROP.” He said a commission has been proposed to be set up to address any shortcomings, if any, in the OROP decision.Noting that around 85 per cent of the army constituted of jawans, he said those who have to compulsorily retire after 15-17 years will benefit the most from this decision. “If anybody gets OROP, jawans will be the first,” said Modi, who was also greeted by ex-servicemen at the function. Hitting out at the Opposition Congress, the Prime Minister said in Faridabad that “Some people are trying to mislead Armed Forces on OROP; trying to score political points.”“Those who did nothing for 40-42 years, do they have any right to ask questions? They only misled you and committed sins. They want to score political points….Oneupmanship will not help the nation,” he said, referring to criticism of the package by the Congress leadership.The veterans, who have been pressing for OROP for four decades, on Saturday won a partial victory with the government announcing that it would implement it, but the veterans rejected the package and decided to continue their agitation. The issue of whether the scheme would cover ex-servicemen who have taken premature retirement had emerged as a major sticking point. They met Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar on Saturday and later said his clarification in this regard was “satisfying”. With Prime Minister’s assurance, the matter seems to have simmered down for now.
Ashima-Leena, known and recognised for their unique style, reflect the ancient traditions of Indian craftsmanship in a contemporary vocabulary. Ashima-Leena are proud to unveil their bridal/couture collection 2016, ‘Mehr-un-Nissa’ – a visual portrayal encapsulating the dichotomous flavours of Mughal Emperor Jahangir’s most beloved Queen. Dripping in diamonds and pearls, an artful visionary, Mehr-un-Nissa proved to be a beacon of femininity and modernity. Similar to an intricate tapestry wound together by golden silks, this whimsical soul was forged not only by classic values and a penchant for the arts, but also by social responsibility and an unbridled will. She transcended societal norms at the time, reveling in traditional roles and forms of study, as well as taking unprecedented interest in political and court affairs. Multi-faceted as she was, Mehr-un-Nissa, proved to be the epitome of a modern Maharani, strong willed and dedicated but doused in softness and femininity. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAntique textile crafting weaves a narrative of juxtaposition, a tale that captures the refreshing youth of Mehr-un-Nissa’s spirit without forsaking richness and regality; richly adorned brocades are used in subtle shades – pastels and shimmering hues of gold are abound, contrasted with royal odhnis of unfettered colour akin to fuchsia, peacock green, and midnight blue. Adding dimension to what is reminiscent of Mughal rule, paisleys and florals are punctuated with modern streaks of pattern and vivid colour – antique textile crafting entwining stand-alone aesthetics to produce an air of innovative intricacy. The same technique transposes heavy and superfluous embroidery, lending buoyancy and royalty to traditionalism, a modern brush of beautiful detail. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveMehr-un-Nissa’s spirit resonates not only with luxury and grandiose design, but also with a quirky and boundary-breaking flair of style. During a period when the Mughal Empire was at the very peak of its power and glory, she dared to challenge what was expected of her, all the while unafraid to exhibit womanly charm. Similarly, Ashima-Leena endeavours to recreate a sense of Mughal royalty without relying upon redundant elements; class and innovation are the two ideals laced together to create a couture/bridal collection that exemplifies the lavishness of the time. Without forsaking vivacity, Ashima-Leena’s bridal/couture collection 2016 is translated through a classic aesthetic and tailored to a woman who is both charismatic and influential – a modern depiction of Mehr-un-Nissa, today’s modern Maharani. Prominence on textile, attention to detail, fabric development and complex grand embroideries are the trademarks of the ingenuity of the brand.
Kolkata: An officer of Railway Protection Force (RPF) rescued a six-year-old boy who had gone missing at Central Metro Station and handed him over to his parents.According to a Press communiqué, it was on Tuesday when the boy got separated from his parents at Central Metro Station. The matter was immediately reported to the security control and subsequent steps were taken by the RPF to find out the boy. He was later found at Maidan Metro Station. The RPF personnel took the boy to the station master’s office at Maidan Metro Station. The station master of Maidan Metro Station passed the information to his counterpart at Central Metro Station. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeIt was at around 5.45 pm, the boy’s father reached the station master’s office at Maidan Police Station. He identified the child. After proper verification and completion of necessary formalities, the child was handed over to his father. He thanked the Metro authorities for helping to get back his boy. In another incident on the same day, a woman had lost her bag containing some cash and a few documents in a train at Mahatma Gandhi Road Station. Security personnel found the bag. A phone number was found inside the bag. The woman was contacted on the phone number. The woman came to the station master’s office and got back her bag after all necessary formalities.
Kolkata: Senior officials of the state Health department on Saturday attributed fatalities in dengue due to wrong treatment and made it clear that there is nothing to panic over fall in platelet count when somebody is affected with the vector-borne disease. The message from the state Health department was delivered during a workshop on prevention and control of the vector-borne disease organised by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation’s Health department at Rabindra Sadan. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata Bose”The platelet count of people in South-East Asia is normally a bit low than in other parts of the world. There is nothing to panic over platelet count when a patient is affected with dengue. Administering platelet to raise the count of a dengue patient in an indiscriminate manner may result in development of other serious complications in the patient,” said Pradip Mitra, director of Medical Education, state Health department. Doctor Bibhuti Saha of the School of Tropical Medicine (STM) reiterated that a dengue patient should not be administered platelet until his/her count falls below 10,000 and there is major bleeding from nose or other body parts. “We strictly adhere to this practice at our critical care unit at STM and doctors should remember that administration of platelet is required only for a few patients with dengue,” he asserted. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataDeputy Mayor of KMC Atin Ghosh said sustained awareness drives have brought down dengue cases in the city and some deaths took place because of improper treatment. “Many doctors and nurses of private hospitals lack training and do not abide by the protocol of the World Health Organisation in treating dengue,” he added. State Director of Health Services Ajay Chakraborty cautioned the health establishments treating dengue patients to be very careful and vigilant for at least two days even when fever of a patient goes down. “These two days after the remission of fever is extremely critical. Registering saline in a customised manner and monitoring of blood pressure, urine, pulse rate and respiration of the patient every four hours is very much necessary,” Chakraborty said. He added that the state Health department has already circulated a treatment protocol on its website and has commenced training of doctors and nurses to handle dengue patients in an efficient manner. “Our main focus will be to ensure that there is not a single death due to dengue as we believe that it is not at all a fatal disease,” he maintained.
Since the start of the Olympic Games in 776 BC, outstanding athletes have set records and become famous in both ancient Greece and in modern times. Olympic records have a long and storied history. According to the BBC, for two thousand years, Leonidas of Rhodes held the record for the most Olympic medals earned. From 164 BC to 152 BC he won three separate races each time, including a 200-meter sprint, a 400-meter race and a race suited up in full armor.The palaestra of Olympia, a place devoted to the training of wrestlers and other athletes.American former competitive swimmer, Mark Spitz won seven gold medals in swimming in 1972, a record held for thirty-six years until in 2008 Olympian Michael Phelps won eight. By 2016 Phelps had broken Leonidas’ long-standing record by earning a total of twenty-eight Olympic medals, crowning him as the greatest Olympian athlete of all time.Mark Spitz at the 1972 Olympics.In ancient Greece, Theagenes of Thasos was another celebrated athlete who became famous for winning at boxing, as well as pankration — a combination of boxing and wrestling. He entered competitions all over the Mediterranean area winning as many as fourteen hundred titles. A statue was erected in his honor.Phelps holds his gold medal on the podium on August 10, 2008. Pictured with Ryan Lochte and László Cseh.Another Ancient Greek Olympian, Diagoras of Rhodes also won at boxing in 464 BC. According to the Olympics website, he stood almost still while boxing, always facing his challenger. His sons were also Olympiads and won five awards.Diagoras of Rhodes carried in the stadium by his two sons.Phayllos of Croton who competed around the turn of the 5th century BC, was skilled in the long jump, discus and javelin throwing. Ancient records, of which there are very few, recorded his long jump at nearly fifty-four feet which is very unlikely.A papyrus list of Olympic victors, 3rd century A.D., British Library.Either they used a different type of measurement for the Games or the record keeper wanted to inflate Phayllos’ numbers. He was also a military hero after the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. He, too, received a statue in his honor. Hipposthenes and his son Etoimokles of Sparta won eleven titles between them.Cassius Clay (second from right and later Ali) at the 1960 Olympics.In modern times athletes such as boxer Muhammad Ali, who at the time was using his given name of Cassius Clay, achieved greatness in the 1960 Games held in Rome, at the age of eighteen. He handily won all of the preliminary matches and finally defeated Zbigniew Pietrzykowski for the gold.Nadia Comăneci at the 1976 Olympics.Thirteen-year-old Nadia Comaneci of Romania became the world’s youngest Olympian to win gold in all of her events. She still holds the record for achieving a perfect 10.0 score on the uneven bars in 1978 and repeated the feat six times.Related Video:Between the Moscow Olympics in 1975 and the Montreal Games in 1980 Comaneci brought home nine medals. She made big news again when she defected to the United States in 1989.Mary Lou Retton, commemorative stamp.Mary Lou Retton won the overall gymnastics gold medal in the 1984 Games and went on to appear in commercials and movies, and lent her name to sports equipment for over thirty years.The basketball team of Clyde Drexler, Larry Bird, Magic Johnson, Michael Jordan, Scottie Pippen, Karl Malone, Patrick Ewing, Charles Barkley, John Stockton, Chris Mullin and David Robinson, several of whom became household names in professional basketball, won gold in 1992 and earned the nickname “The Dream Team.”Sir Steve Redgrave, British Olympic athlete, on stage in Salisbury, England. Photo byPhil Guest – Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0Sir Steve Redgrave became famous in Great Britain after winning gold medals at all five Olympic Games he attended.Florence Griffith Joyner.Track and field great Florence Griffith-Joyner still holds Olympic records for the one hundred meter and two hundred meter run records set in 1988 bringing home three gold medals. Joyner died of an epileptic seizure just ten years later when she was only 38 years old.Read another story from us: Did You Know: An Empty Pie Plate and the Planet Pluto Inspired the FrisbeeAt the 1936 Olympics held in Nazi-controlled Berlin, Jesse Owens won four gold medals and set a long jump record that stayed intact for twenty-five years, much to the chagrin of Adolf Hitler who expected his “Aryans” to sweep the Games. Surprisingly, Owens smoked a pack of cigarettes a day and succumbed to lung cancer in 1980.Ian Harvey is a freelance writer and journalist and has contributed to various magazines and news websites.